Brief Summary of Past Research



  • "New" Elements

    We have shown that "new" elements (2) such as potassium, although alkali elements at ambient pressure, can react chemically like a transition element with a single electron in a d-orbital upon compression to gigapascal pressures. Unusual graphite-like sheets (see AgK2 figure) of potassium atoms (red) intercalated with silver atoms (black) in AgK2 can form, for example (3).

    Carbon Materials

    We have also investigated carbon materials such as the sp3-bonded "transparent phase", a new form of carbon (4) that forms upon compression of (sp2-bonded) graphite (5), networks formed from benzene molecules (6), diamond formed directly from C60 at ambient temperature (7), and carbon nitrides (8). Multiwavelength Raman spectroscopy (9) with excitation wavelengths from the deep UV to the near IR has proved to be a powerful tool for characterizing these materials. The insights from these curiosity driven studies of carbons reversible rehybridization behavior may help in the search for improved hydrogen storage materials, new phases of carbon and high strength carbon materials.

    Materials Discovery by Pressure Tuning

    We have used pressure for a "combinatorial" approach to complex materials discovery because fundamental parameters such as orbital overlap can be tuned very precisely and over a wide range (1). For example, our pressure tuning experiments have shown that the product of the temperature and dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) of the most technologically important thermoelectric material, antimony bismuth telluride, can be doubled from ~1 to ~2. (10). These studies may provide insight into how to reproduce this record ZT at ambient pressure.


  • Selected Publications

    • (1) Badding, J. V. High-pressure synthesis, characterization, and tuning of solid-state materials. Annual Review of Materials Science 28, 631 (1998).
    • (2) Parker, L. J., Atou, T. & Badding, J. V. Transition element-like chemistry for potassium under pressure. Science 273, 95 (1996).
    • (3) Atou, T., Hasegawa, M., Parker, L. J. & Badding, J. V. Unusual Chemical Behavior for Potassium under Pressure: Potassium-Silver Compounds. Journal of the American Chemical Society 118, 12104 (1996).
    • (4) Badding, J.V., Lueking, A.L., Reversible High Pressure sp2-sp3 Transformations in Carbon, Phase Transitions, 80, 1033 (2007)
    • (5) Miller, E. D., Nesting, D. C. & Badding, J. V. Quenchable Transparent Phase of Carbon. Chemistry of Materials 9, 18 (1997).
    • (6) Jackson, B. R., Trout, C. C. & Badding, J. V. UV Raman Analysis of the C:H Network Formed by Compression of Benzene. Chemistry of Materials 15, 1820 (2003).
    • (7) Ravindran, T. R. & Badding, J. V. Ultraviolet Raman analysis of the formation of diamond from C60. Solid State Communications 121, 391 (2002).
    • (8) Badding, J. V. Solid-state carbon nitrides. Advanced Materials 9, 877 (1997).
    • (9) Ravindran, T. R., Jackson, B. R. & Badding, J. V. UV Raman Spectroscopy of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes. Chemistry of Materials 13, 4187 (2001).
    • (10) Polvani, D. A., Meng, J. F., Shekar, N. V. C., Sharp, J. & Badding, J. V. Large Improvement in Thermoelectric Properties in Pressure-Tuned p-Type Sb1.5Bi0.5Te3. Chemistry of Materials 13, 2068 (2001).
    • (11) Baril, N.F, He, R., Day, T.D., Sparks, J.R., Keshavarzi, B, , Krishnamurthi, M, Borhan, A, Gopalan, V, Peacock, A.C, Heal, N, . Sazio, P.J.A., and Badding, J. V. Confined High-Pressure Chemical Deposition of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 134, 19-22 (2012).
    • (12) Sazio, P. J. A., Amezcua-Correa, A., Finlayson, C. E., Hayes, J. R., Scheidemantel, T. J., Baril, N. F., Jackson, B. R., Won, D.-J., Zhang, F., Margine, E. R., Gopalan, V., Crespi, V. H. & Badding, J. V. Microstructured Optical Fibers as High-Pressure Microfluidic Reactors. Science 311, 1583 (2006).
    • (13) Sparks, J.R., He, R., Healy, N., Krishnamurthi, M, Peacock, A.M., Sazio, P.J.A., Gopalan, V. Badding, J.V. Zinc Selenide Optical Fibers, Advanced Materials, 23, 1647 (2011).
    • (14) Healy, N., Lagonigro, L., Sparks, J.R., Boden, S., Sazio, P.J.A., Badding, J.V., and Peacock, A.C., Polycrystalline silicon optical fibers with atomically smooth surfaces, Optics Letters, 36, 12480-2482 (2011).
    • (15) He, R.,Sazio, P.J.A., Peacock, A.C, Heal, N., Sparks, J.R., Krishnamurthi, M, Gopalan, V, and Badding, J. V., Integration of GHz Bandwidth Semiconductor Devices inside Microstructured Optical Fibres, Nature Photonics, 6, 174-179 (2012).
    • (16) Calkins, J.A., Peacock, A.C, Sazio, P. J. A., Allara, D.L., and Badding, J. V. Spontaneous Waveguide Raman Spectroscopy of Self-Assembled Monolayers in Silica Micropores, Langmuir, 27, 630 (2011).
    • (17) Mehta, P., Krishanmurthi, M., Healy, N., Baril, N. F., Sparks, J., Sazio, P. J. A., Gopalan,V., Badding, J. V. and Peacock, A. C. Mid-infrared transmission properties of amorphous germanium optical fibers, Applied Physics Letters, 97, 071117 (2010).
    • (18) Vukovic, N, Healy, N, Horak, P., Sparks, J.R., Sazio, P.J.A., Badding, J.V., and, Peacock, A.C., Ultra-smooth microcylindrical resonators fabricated from silicon optical fibers, Applied Physics Letters, 99. 03117 (2011).
    • (19) Krishnamurthi, M, Sparks, J.R., He, R.,Temkyh, I., Baril, N.F., Liu, Z., Sazio, P.J.A., Badding, J. V., and Gopalan, V, An Array of Tapered Semiconductor Waveguides in a Fiber for Infrared Image Transfer and Magnification Optics Express, 20, 4168-4175 (2012).
    • (20) Mehta, P., Healy, N., Baril,N. F., Sazio, P. J. A., Badding, J. V. and Peacock, A. C. Nonlinear transmission properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon core optical fibers, Optics Express, 18, 16826 (2010).
    • (21) Danisman, M.F, Calkins, J.A. Sazio, P.J.A., Allara, D.A., Badding, J.V. Organosilane Self Assembled Monolayer Growth from Supercritical Carbon Dioxide in Microstructured Optical Fiber Capillary Arrays, Langmuir, 24, 3636 (2008).
    • (22) Baril, N. F., Keshavarzi, B., Sparks, J. Krishnamurthi, M., Temnykh, I., Sazio, P. J. A., Peacock, A. C., Borhan, A., Gopalan, V., Badding, J. V. High Pressure Chemical Deposition for Void-Free Filling of Extreme Aspect Ratio Templates, Advanced Materials, 22, 4605 (2010).
    • (23) Jackson, B.R., Sazio, P.J., Badding,J.V., Single Crystal Silicon Wires Integrated into Microstructured Optical Fiber Templates, Advanced Materials, 20, 1135 (2008).
    • (24) Borkar, S., Gu, B., Dirmyer, M., Delicado, R., Sen, A., Jackson, B. R. & Badding, J. V. Polytetrafluoroethylene nano/microfibers by jet blowing. Polymer 47, 8337-8343 (2006).
    • (25) Ainslie, K. M., Bachelder, E. M., Borkar, S., Zahr, A. S., Sen, A., Badding, J. V. & Pishko, M. V.Albumin Adsorption and Cell Adhesion on Nanofibrous Polytetrafluoroethylene (nPTFE). Langmuir, 23, 747-754 (2007).
    • (26) Sparks, J.R., He, R., Healy, N., Chaudhuri, S., Peacock, A.C., Sazio, P.J.A., and Badding, J. V., Conformal Coating by High Pressure Chemical Deposition for Patterned Microwires of II-VI Semiconductors, Advanced Functional Materials 10.1002/adfm.201202224.
    • (27) He, R., Day, T.D., Krishnamurthi, M., Sparks, J.R., Sazio, P.J.A., Gopalan, V., and Badding, J. V., Silicon p-i-n Junction Fibers, Advanced Materials 10.1002/adma.201203879.
    • (28) Liu, X., Tang, Y., Xu, E., Fitzgibbons, T., Larsen, G., Gutierrez, H., Tseng, H.-H., Yu, M.-S., Tsao, C.-S., Badding, J., Crespi, V., Lueking, A., Evidence for Ambient-Temperature Reversible Catalytic Hydrogenation in Pt-doped Carbons, Nano Letters 10.1021/nl303673z.
    • (29) Mehta, P., Healy, N., Day, T.D., Badding, J. V., and Peacock, A. C. Ultrafast wavelength conversion via cross-phase modulation in hydrogenated amorphous silicon optical fibers, Optics Express 20, 26110-26116 (2012).
    • (30) Sparks, J.R., Sazio, P.J.A., Gopalan, V., Badding, J. V., Templated Chemically Deposited Semiconductor Optical Fiber Materials, Annual Review of Materials Research, 0.1146/annurev-matsci-073012-125958.